Everywhere in the world women live longer than men – but this was not always the case. The available data from rich countries shows that women didn’t live longer than men in the 19th century. What’s the reason why women are more likely to live longer than men? Why has this advantage gotten larger over time? There isn’t much evidence and we have only incomplete solutions. We recognize that biological, behavioral and environmental factors all play a role in the fact that women have longer lives than men, However, we’re not sure how much the influence of each one of these factors is.
It is known that women are living longer than men, regardless of weight. However it is not because of certain biological factors have changed. What are these factors that have changed? Some are well known and relatively straightforward, افضل شامبو وبلسم like the fact that men smoke more often. Other are more complicated. For example, there is evidence that in rich countries the female advantage increased in part because infectious diseases used to affect women disproportionately a century ago, so advances in medicine that reduced the long-term health burden from infectious diseases, especially for survivors, ended up raising women’s longevity disproportionately.
Everywhere in the world women tend to live longer than men
The first chart below shows life expectancy at birth for men and women. We can see that every country is over the diagonal line of parity. This implies that a baby girl from any country can be expected to live for longer than her brother.
This graph shows that although women have an advantage throughout the world, the differences between countries can be substantial. In Russia women are 10 years older than men. In Bhutan the difference is just half each year.
We will now examine how the gender advantage in longevity has changed with time. The next chart shows male and female life expectancy when they were born in the US during the time period between 1790 and 2014. Two distinct points stand out.
First, there is an upward trend. Men and women in the US have a much longer life span longer than they did 100 years ago. This is in line with historical increases in life expectancy everywhere in the world.
And second, there is an increasing gap: The female advantage in life expectancy used to be extremely small, but it grew substantially during the last century.
You can confirm that these principles are also applicable to other countries with data by clicking on the “Change country” option on the chart. This includes the UK, France, and Sweden.